POLYGLOID
POLYGLOID - MULTILINGUAL VOCALOID
BLOG | SITEMAP | FAQ | HELP | BOOKMARK | DOWNLOADS
MESSAGE BOARD | LINKS
VOCALOID PHONETIC CHART
The following is a phonetic chart to guide usage and to look for phonetic equivalents between VOCALOID syntaxes.

Two phonetic syntaxes exist for VOCALOID; the English and Japanese phonetic syntax. Of all the Vocaloids, only MEGURINE LUKA uses both, though as separate voice banks.

NOTE: All phonetic syntaxes are CASE SENSITIVE. Those with quotation marks is a group of syntaxes, which must be typed together. If you want to look for a phoneme equivalent in this page, use your browser's search feature.

LEGEND:
     Phoneme - Syllables that are used in everyday speech and vocalization. They are the building blocks of the natural language used by humans.
     Alias - Syllables and/or symbols that also match / are related to the mentioned phoneme.
     Matching Word - Words that use the mentioned phoneme prominently.
     In Japanese - The method to produce the pronunciation of the mentioned phoneme using the Japanese Vocaloid syntax.
     In English - The method to produce the pronunciation of the mentioned phoneme using the English Vocaloid syntax.
     Remarks - Special comments, if it applies. May also contain information on how to adjust to make it sound as accurate as possible.

Duplicates may occur in terms of phonetic values.

To guide usage universally, aliases now includes a syllable's IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) equivalents.


PHONEME ALIAS MATCHING WORD IN JAPANESE IN ENGLISH REMARKS
a あ ア ä ʔ ʡ Abort a V An IPA Glottal Plosive. A rapid and abrupt vocalization of this results in an IPA Epiglottal Plosive.
a ā Agent or A (letter pronunciation) "e i" or "e j" eI  
a ă æ Albert a { The difference is the accented way. To emulate this for Japanese Vocaloids, it must be vocalized fast, and in a lower volume.
a â Air "e 4" e@ May need tricks for Japanese Vocaloids if the results is not satisfactory.
e え エ ĕ Egg e e A common syntax.
e ē Evening or E (letter pronunciation) i i: This is a prolonged I. Soft volume and slightly slower vocalization can emulate this kind of pronunciation for Japanese Vocaloids.
er   Ergo "o 4" @r  
er ər Error "e 4" e@  
i い イ ĭ In i I The difference is that I has harder pronunciation than i:. This is interpreted as a short and louder i for Japanese Vocaloids.
i ī Island or I (letter pronunciation) "a i" or "a j" aI  
ie î Ieper (city in Belgium) "j e j" "j eI"  
o お オ ô On o Q  
o ŏ Oblige o V Japanese Vocaloids require this to be vocalized fast to sound accurate.
o  ou Out "a M" aU  
o ō O (letter pronunciation) "o M" @U  
o ŏŏ Oodles M u: or U  
o ōō Oops M u: or U  
oi   Oishi (delicious) "o i" or "o j" "o i:" or "o I"  
u ŭ Under a V  
u   Unity "j M" or "i M" "j u:"  
u う ウ Ultra M u: Inaccurate U in Filipino / Tagalog in Japanese Vocaloids, in lower octaves. This is true as well for other Spanish-based dialects. Acceptable however, in English Vocaloids for all octaves.
u û Urge "o 4" @ or @r  
u   U (letter pronunciation) "j M" "j u:"  
b   B (letter pronunciation) "b' i" "bh i:"  
b β B (consonant) or Bib "b" or "b'" b Plosive-bilabial, according to the IPA.
ba ば バ Basket "b a" "bh {" or "b {" "bh a" makes it a fricative. Use whatever is appropriate.
ba   Ball "b a" or "b o" "bh O:" or "b O:"  
be べ ベ Bend "b e" "bh e" or "b e" "bh e" makes it a fricative. Use whatever is appropriate.
be   Bee "b' i" "bh i:" or "b i:" "bh i:"  makes it a fricative. Use whatever is appropriate.
bi   Binary "b a i" or "b a j" "bh aI" or "b aI"  
bi び ビ Bin "b' i" "bh i:" or "b i:" "bh i:" makes it a fricative. Use whatever is appropriate.
bo   Bowl "b a" "bh @U" Japanese Vocaloids require this to be vocalized fast to sound accurate.
bo ぼ ボ Bonfire "b o" "bh Q" or "b Q"  
bo   Boot "b M" "bh u:" or "b u:"  
br ʙ Bravo "b 4 a" "bh r Q" or "b r Q" A Bilabial-Trill, according to the IPA. Japanese Vocaloids may not pronounce the "r" part well, and may need techniques to make them sound right. For Prima, use R instead of r for the best results.
bu   Bundle "b a" "bh V" or "b V"  
bu ぶ ブ Bull "b M" "bh U" or "b U"  
bya   Byakko (mythical tiger) "b' a" "b j V"  
bye   Byenan (mother-in-law) "b' e" "b j e"  
bye   Bye (shortened goodbye) "b a i" or "b a j" "bh aI" or "b aI"  
byo   Byo (counting unit of seconds) "b' o" "bh j Q" or "b j Q"  
byu     "b' M" "bh j u:" or "b j u:"  
c   C (letter pronunciation) "s i" "s i:"  
ca   Cajole or Casa "k a" "kh V" or "kh Q" This is intended as a softer KA, for English Vocaloids. Slower vocalization needed for Japanese Vocaloids to pronounce this.
ca   Cambridge "k e i" "kh eI"  
ca   Candy "k e" "kh {"  
ca   Call "k h o" "kh O:"  
ce   Ceiling "s i" "s i:"  
ce   Center "s e" "s e"  
ci   Cinema "s i" "s I"  
co   Command "k o" "kh V"  
co   Count "k a" "kh aU"  
co   Coal "k o" "kh @U"  
cu   Cut "k a" "kh V"  
cu   Curb "k a" or "k e" "kh @r" Under dispute for example
ch Church tS tS  
cha   Channel "tS a" "tS {"  
che   Cherish "tS e" "tS e@"  
chi ち チ Children "tS i" "tS I"  
cho   Chocolate "tS o" "tS O:"  
cho   Choose "tS M" "tS u:"  
chu   Chum "tS a" "tS V" Fast vocalization is required for Japanese Vocaloids to get near or exact results.
chu   Chump "tS a" "tS V"  
chu   Chute "S u" "S u:"  
chu   Churros "tS M" "tS u:"  
d   D (letter pronunciation) "d' i" "dh i:" or "d i:"  
d ɖ D (consonant) or Deed d or d' d or dh By default, an Alveolar-Plosive, according to the IPA. When applied with volume or dynamics to make it slightly louder, it becomes an IPA Retroflex-Plosive. As an ending letter, Japanese Vocaloids may require tricks to get the pronunciation right.
da   Dastardly "d a" "dh {" or "d {"  
da   Dark "d a" "dh Q@" or "d Q@"  
da   Daily "d e i" or "d e j" "dh eI" or "d eI"  
de   Deliver "d a" or "d e" "dh V" or "d V" Either of the two, for Japanese Vocaloids, may be used, based on preferred accent.
de で デ Dent "d e" "dh e" or "d e"  
de   Deal "d' i" "dh i:" or "d i:"  
di   Distant "d' i" "dh I" or "d I" Fast vocalization is required for Japanese Vocaloids to get near or exact results.
do ど ド Dos (two) "d o" "dh O:" or "d O:"  
do   Dog "d o" "dh Q" or "d Q"  
do   Domain "d o" "dh @U" or "d @U"  
do   Done "d a" "dh V" or "d V"  
do   Do (act) "d M" "dh u:" or "d u:"  
du   Dulce "d M" "dh u:" or "d u:"  
du   Duration "d j M" "dh U@" or "d U@"  
du   Dumb "d a" "dh V" or "d V"  
dy   Dysfunctional "d'" or "d j" or "d' i" "dh j" or "d j"  
dy   Dynamite "d a i" or "d a j" "dh aI" or "d aI"  
dya   Dyamante (Tagalog form of "Diamond") "d' a" or "d j a" "dh j V" or "d j V"  
dye     "d' a" or "d j a" "dh j e" or "d j e"  
dyi     "d' i" "dh j I" or "d j I" dyi is phonemically impossible for Japanese Vocaloids.
dyo   Dyos (Alternate Tagalog form of Diyos, meaning "God") "d' o" or "d j o" "dh j Q" or "d j Q"  
dyu     "d' M" or "d j M" "dh j U" or "d j U"  
f   F (letter pronunciation) "e p\" "e f" Tested on Luka, but may not reliably work on other Japanese Vocaloids, and may need adjustments.
f ɸ F (consonant) or Fluff p\ f As an ending letter, Japanese Vocaloids may require tricks to get the pronunciation right. For all Vocaloids, faster vocalizations turn it into a Bilabial-Fricative while slower vocalization with breathiness makes it a Labiodental-Fricative, as per IPA standards.
fa   Father "p\ a" "f Q" Japanese FA has a bit of initial trailing, but does the job, regardless.
fa   Fan "p\ a" "f {" Fast vocalization is required for Japanese Vocaloids to get near or exact results.
fe   Feminine "p\ e" "f e"  
fe   Feast "p\' i" "f i:"  
fi   Finish "p\' i" "f I"  
fi   Fine "p\ a i" or "p\ a j" "f aI" For Japanese Vocaloids, the second syntax may be tried if it does not work or give desired results. (especially true for Meiko and Kaito)
fo   Folk "p\ o M" "f @U"  
fo   Follow "p\ a" or "p\ o" "f Q"  
fo   Fool "p\ M" "f u:"  
fu ふ フ Full "p\ M" "f U" or "f u:"  
fu   Fun "p\ a" "f V"  
fv ʁ   "p\ b 4" "f v v" A Voiced Uvular-Fricative according to the IPA. It is listed as f due to its near-association to the letter f despite being a r letter. The v resonance makes it sound like a rapid rolling r.
fw ɧ   "p\ h w" "f h w" An IPA Voiceless Palatal-Velar-Fricative.
g   G (letter pronunciation) "dZ i" "dZ i:" Be careful not to make a mistake for English Vocaloids; the i comes with a colon!
g ɣ ɢ G (consonant) or Gag g or "g h" g or gh A Voiced Velar-Plosive, according to the IPA. Boosted in dynamics, it sounds like a Voiced Uvular-Plosive. Japanese Vocaloids may pronounce this letter in the end of a word softly. It may require volume boost to get the desired effect.
ga が ガ Gal "g a" "gh {" or "g {"  
ga   Gate "g e i" or "g e j" "gh eI" or "g eI"  
ge げ ゲ Gemote (judicial assembly) "g e" "gh e" or "g e"  
ge   Gender "dZ e" "dZ e"  
ge   Geek "g' i" "gh i:"  
ge   Gestapo "g h e" or "g a" "gh V" or "g V"  
gi ぎ ギ Give "g' i" "gh I" or "g I"  
gi   Gin (liquor) "dZ i" "dZ I"  
gi   Gills "g' i" "gh I" or "g I"  
go ご ゴ Gogo (afternoon, PM) "g o" "gh O:" or "g O:" or "gh Q" or "g Q" English Vocaloids have 4 ways of pronouncing GO in this way.
go   Govern "g a h" "gh V" or "g V"  
go   Go (verb) "g o M" "gh @U" or "g @U"  
go   Gone "g a" "gh Q" or "g Q"  
go   Goose "g M" "gh u:" or "g u:"  
gu ぐ グ Gusu (even numerals, ie. 2, 4, 6, 8, etc) "g M" "gh u:" or "g u:"  
gu   Guard "g a" "gh Q@" or "g Q@"  
gu   Guest "g e" "gh e" or "g e"  
gu   Gum "g a" or "g o" "gh V" or "g V"  
gh ɦ   "g h" or "g' h" or "g C" or "br2 g h h" "gh" or "br2 gh h" An IPA Voiced Glottal-Fricative. The g part seems abrupt, with the breathiness of the h prominent, complemented by the breath component from br1-br6.
gy ɡʲ Gyoza (dumpling) "g'" "g j"  
gya   Gyaku (reverse) "g' a" "g j V" or "g j {" English Vocaloids may pronounce this softer than normal.
gyo   Gyoji (event) "g' o" "g j Q"  
gyu   Gyunyu (dairy milk) "g' M" "g j u:"  
h   H (pronunciation) "e i tS" or "e j tS i" "eI tS"  
h   H (consonant) or Hat h or C h Japanese Vocaloids sometimes treat h as exhalation, if not ignoring it entirely. Tricks may be needed to get the desired effect.
h   H (stress / exhalation) h h An IPA Glottal-Fricative. For all Vocaloids, after vowels in the end of the word, it creates an exhaling effect.
ha は ハ Havok "h a" "h {"  
ha   Haul "h o" "h O:"  
ha   Haven "h e i" or "h e j" "h eI"  
hch x   "h tS h" "h tS h" A Voiceless Velar-Fricative according to the IPA. Although not perfectly accurate, this improvision, coupled with tricks, and adding breathiness, can get the job done.
he へ ヘ Henry "h e" "h e"  
he   Heave "C i" "h i:" Quicker pronunciations needed for Japanese Vocaloids to match this.
he   Heil "h a i" or "h a j" "h aI"  
hh ħ   "br2 h h" or "br2 C h" or "br2 h C" "br2 h h" An IPA Pharyngeal-Fricative. It is an extended h, with emphasis on the exhalation. br2 refers to the breathing sound present in all Vocaloids, from br1 to br6. Edit breathiness and brightness as necessary, and add br1-br6 where applicable.
hi ひ ヒ Hinder "C i" "h I"  
hi   High "h a i" or "h a j" "h aI"  
hl ʜ   "h C 4 4" or "C 4 4" "h h l l" or "h h 1 l0" or "h h l0 l" or "h h 10 l0" An IPA Voiceless Epiglottal Fricative. Basically letter h with a coupled letter l pronunciation.
ho ほ ホ Hot "h o" "h Q"  
ho   Hover "h a" "h V"  
ho   Honor o Q  
ho   Home "h o" "h @U"  
ho   Hook "h M" "h U"  
hr ʕ   "h h 4 4" or "C C 4 4" "h h r" An IPA Voiced Pharyngeal-Fricative. Reduce brightness and breathiness to get the desired effect.
hsh ç   "h S" "h S" An IPA Voiceless Palatal-Fricative. The extra exhalation by the h phoneme makes it distinguishable from other IPA values.
hu   Hump "h a" "h V"  
hu   Hubert "C M" "h j u:"  
hu   Hurry "h e" "h @"  
hu   Husto (sufficient) "h M" "h U"  
hw ʍ   "h h w" "h h w" An IPA Voiceless Labio-Velar-Approximant. Increase velocity to make the h component prominent. May also be substituted for wh.
hya   Hyaku (hundred) "C a" "h j V"  
hye     "C e" "h j e"  
hyo   Hyo (male name) "C o" "h j Q"  
hyu   Hyundai "C M" "h j u:"  
hz ɣ   "h g dz" "h g z" A Voiced Velar-Fricative according to the IPA. Add breathiness and reduce brightness to increase accuracy, as it may sometimes be too similar to conventional z.
j   J (letter pronunciation) "dZ e i" or "dZ e j" "dZ eI"  
j dʒ ʑ J (consonant) or Judge dZ dZ An IPA Voiced-Alveolo-Palatal-Fricative. When used in the end of the word, it may require an extra I at the end to emulate natural vocalization.
ja   Japan "dZ a" "dZ V"  
ja   Jane "dZ e i" or "dZ e j" "dZ eI"  
je   Jester "dZ e" "dZ e"  
je   Jesus "dZ i" "dZ i:"  
ji じ ジ ぢ ヂ Jill "dZ i" "dZ I" For Japanese vocalization, this is the correct form, though zi or di can be used for loanwords.
ji   Jive "dZ a i" or "dZ a j" "dZ aI"  
jo   Joe "dZ o M" "dZ @U"  
jo   Jog "dZ o" "dZ Q"  
ju   Juice "dZ M" "dZ u:"  
ju   Junk "dZ a" "dZ V"  
jy ɟ   "dZ j" "dZ j" An IPA Palatal-Plosive. May also sound similar to dy, depending on accent desired.
jya   Jyaku (evil) "dZ j a" "dZ j V"  
jye     "dZ j e" "dZ j e"  
jyi     "dZ i" "dZ j I"  
jyo     "dZ j o" "dZ j Q"  
jyu     "dZ j M" "dZ j U" or "dZ j u:"  
k   K (letter pronunciation) "k e i" or "k e j" "kh eI" or "k eI"  
k q K (consonant) or Kick k or k' k or kh A Voiceless Velar-Plosive, according to the IPA. With reduced brightness, velocity and dynamics, it sounds like an IPA Voiceless Uvular-Plosive. When used in the end of a word, M (for Japanese Vocaloids) or Q or U (for English Vocaloids) can be added to add realism to the vocalization, if necessary.
ka か カ Kage (shadow) "k a" "kh V" or "k V"  
ke   Kevin "k e" "kh e" or "k e"  
ke け ケ Keep "k' i" "kh i:" or "kh i" or "k i:" or "k i" Sometimes "i:", "i" or "I" may be used, for English Vocaloids. Try and see which one works for you.
kh χ Khmer "k h" "kh h" An IPA Voiceless Uvular-Fricative. An emphasis on the breathiness on after the k part is placed that tells it apart from other similar phonemes.
ki き キ Kindred "k' i" "kh I" or "kh i" or "k I" or "k i"  
ki   Kind "k a i" or "k a j" "kh aI" or  "k aI"  
ko こ コ Kobe (place in Japan) "k o" or "k h o" "kh Q" or "k Q"  
ku   Kung (if) "k M" "kh U" or "k U"  
ku く ク Kuso (shit) "k M" "kh u:" or "k u:"  
kya   Kyaku (customer) "k' a" "kh j V" or "k j V"  
kyo   Kyoto (place in Japan) "k' o" "kh j Q" or "k j Q"  
kyu   Kyu (old, previous) "k' M" "kh j U" or "k j U" or "kh j u:" or "k j u:"  
l   L (letter pronunciation) "e 4" "e l" L consonant is merged with R in Japanese phonetics.
l ɫ ɰ L (consonant) or Lid 4 or 4' l or l0 Vocalized slowly, it is an IPA Pharyngealized form. Normally, an Alveolar-Lateral Approximant in the IPA. With lower breathiness/brightness, but maximum velocity, it can sound like an IPA Velar-Approximant. Japanese Vocaloids do not have a natural-sounding L, so they use 4 (R) instead. This can lead to interesting effects since some Japanese Vocaloids like Gackpoid has R that sounds more like L in most octaves. On the other hand, English Vocaloids have two L vocalizations, where l0 is a more accented way of pronunciation.
la   Lava "4 a" "l0 Q" Ra can be altered into La midway during synthesis for Japanese Vocaloids.
le   Lesson "4 e" "l0 e" Re can be altered into Le midway during synthesis for Japanese Vocaloids
lhl     "4 h 4' 4" "l h l" or "l0 h l" or"l h l0" or "l0 h l0" An IPA Voiced Epiglottal Fricative. Combines l and h, with slight resonance on the latter l component.
li   Liberty "4' i" "l0 I" It can be hard to disambiguate Ri into Li for Japanese Vocaloids, depending on the octave.
li   Lies "4 a i" or "4 a j" "l0 aI"  
lo   Low "4 o" or "4 a M" "l0 @U" Depending on the Japanese Vocaloid, it sounds more like Lo than Ro. This can be a problem when attempting to vocalize rolling R's.
lu   Lucy "4 M" "l0 u:"  
lu   Luck "4 a" "l0 V"  
ll ʟ   "4 4" "l l" or "l l 0" or "l0 l" or  "l0 l0" A Velar-Lateral Approximant according to the IPA. Basically a stressed l, which may be troublesome for Japanese Vocaloids, requiring tricks for proper vocalization. A slight dynamics or velocity boost can get the job done for English Vocaloids.
lla   Llama (animal) "4 a" "l0 Q"  
llo   Lloyd "4 o" "l0 O:"  
llu   Llundain (old London name) "4 a" "l0 {"  
m   M (letter pronunciation) "e m" "e m"  
m   M (consonant) or Mum m m M is a Bilabial-Nasal, according to the IPA. M sometimes is substituted for N in some cases, and this is true for all Vocaloids.
m ɱ M (humming) m or "m'" m This M is a Labiodental-Nasal, according to the IPA. It's mostly for another type of humming, which applies to all Vocaloids. Add an extra "m" if the humming is insufficient.
ma ま マ Manila "m a" "m V"  
ma   Maple "m e i" or "m e j" "m eI" For Japanese Vocaloids, two options are possible, but its usage depends on expected output.
me め メ Men "m e" "m e"  
me   Measles "m' i" "m i:"  
mi mʲ み ミ Mint "m' i" "m i:"  
mi   Mine "m a i" or "m a j" "m aI"  
mo も モ Monster "m o" "m Q"  
mo   Mole "m o M" or "m o w" "m @U"  
mo   Mother "m a" "m V"  
mo   Moire "m w a" "m w O:"  
mu む ム Muda (useless) "m M" "m u:"  
mu   Mute "m' M" "m j u:"  
mu   Mundane "m a" "m V"  
mya     "m' a" "m j V"  
myo   Myoji (surname) "m' o" "m j Q"  
myu     "m' M" "m j u:" or "m j U"  
n   N (humming) n or J or N or N\ n or m May be substituted for "n g" in Tagalog vocalizations in fast tempos.
n   N (letter pronunciation) "e n" "e n"  
n ɳ ん ン N (consonant) or Net n n An Alveolar-Nasal, according to the IPA. With reduced brightness, it can sound like an IPA Retroflex-Nasal, a resonating variant that seems to be throatier. For Japanese Vocaloids, some words do not terminate properly with N as the last letter. This may require tricks.
ň   Ň (letter pronunciation) "e n J e" "e n j e"  
na な ナ National "n a" "n {"  
na   Navel "n e i" or "n e j" "n eI"  
ne ね ネ Never "n e" "n e"  
ne   Neat "J i" "n i:"  
ni に ニ Nitpick "J i" "n I"  
ni   Nitrogen "n a i" or "n a j" "n aI"  
no のノ No "n o" "n aU" or "n Q"  
no   Not "n a" "n V"  
nu   Number "n a" "n V"  
nu ぬ ヌ Nubile "n M" "n u:"  
ng ŋ Ngaw "n g" or "N g" or "N\ g" "n g" or "N" A Velar-Nasal, according to the IPA. Used in English, common in Tagalog and many Spanish variants. Japanese Vocaloids pronounce this better in true Hispanic style.
nga   Ngayon (now) "n g a" or "N\ a" or "N a" "n g V" or "N V"  
nge   Nge! (interjection) "n g e" or "N\ e" or "N e" "n g e" or "N e"  
ngi   Ngiti (smile) "n g' i" or "N\ i" or "N i" "n g I" or "N I"  
ngo   (Ngo-ngo) "n g o or "N\ o" or "N o" "n g Q" or "N Q"  
ngu   Nguso (snout, mouth) "n g M" or "N\ M" or "N M" "n g U" or "N U" Japanese Vocaloids will pronounce this "u" differently. Tricks will be needed to alter it as needed.
ny ɲ Nyusu (News) J "n j" An IPA Palatal-Nasal.
nya   Nya (shortened "niya", his or her) "J a" "n j V" For English Vocaloids, "nya" is rather weak in comparison to Japanese Vocaloids.
nye   Nye! (interjection) "J e" "n j e"  
nyi     "J i" "n j I"  
nyo   Nyo (shortened "ninyo", your) "J o" "n j Q"  
nyu   Nyuin (hospitalization) "J M" "n u:"  
p   P (letter pronunciation) "p' i" "ph i:" or "p i:"  
p   P (consonant) or Peep p or p' p or ph Plosive-bilabial, according to the IPA.
pa ぱ パ Pan "p a" "ph {" or "p {"  
pa   Paper "p e i" or "p e j" "ph eI" or "p eI"  
pe ぺ ペ Pen "p e" "ph e" or "p e"  
pe   Peace "p' i" "ph i:" or "p i:"  
pi ぴ ピ Pin "p' i" "ph I" or "p I"  
pi   Pineapple or Pie "p a i" or "p a j" "ph aI" or "p aI"  
po   Pole "p o" or "p h a" "ph @U" or "p @U"  
po ぽ ポ Pom "p o" "ph O:" or "p O:"  
pu ぷ プ Put "p M" "ph U" or "p U" or "p u:" Use "p u:" for English Vocaloids to achieve stressed u's for Japanese vocalization.
pu   Pun "p a" "ph V" or "p V"  
ph   Philippines "p\" or "p\ h" "f" As an ending letter, Japanese Vocaloids may require tricks to get the pronunciation right.
pya   Pyano (Tagalized Piano) "p' a" "ph j V" or "p j V"  
pyo   Pyongyang (location in North Korea) "p' o" "ph j Q" or "p j Q"  
pyu     "p' M" "ph j u:" or "p j u:" or "ph j U" or "p j U"  
q   Q (letter pronunciation) "k' M M" "kh j u:" or "k j u:"  
qa   Qantas "k h a" "kh Q" or "k Q" English Vocaloids may omit "w", but Japanese Vocaloids need it to sound authentic.
qe     "k h e" "kh e"  
qi     "k C i" "kh I"  
qo     "k h o" "kh Q" or "kh O:"  
qu   Quantum "k w" "kh w"  
qu   Quote "k M" "kh w @U"  
qu   Queue "k' M" "kh j u:" or "k j u:"  
qu   Quintuplets "k h w i" "kh w I"  
que   Pique      
r   R (letter pronunciation) "a 4" "Q@" For Japanese Vocaloids, tricks may be needed to make the sound realistic.
r ɹ ɻ ɾ ɽ R (consonant, schwa) or Rig 4 or 4' r This r, depending on the Vocaloid, may be an IPA Alveolar-Flap, Retroflex-Flap, Alveolar-Approximant or Retroflex Approximant. Some Japanese Vocaloids may pronounce this sounding like the letter L.
r ʀ R (consonant, rolling) "4' 4'" R Depending on the Vocaloid, it may come out as an IPA Alveolar-Trill or Uvular-Trill. Currently, only Prima has a native rolling R, which is important for certain languages like Tagalog. To emulate rolling Rs for those not capable will require tricks.
ra ら ラ Rally "4 a" "r {"  
ra   Rain "4 e" "r eI"  
re   Revenge "4' i" "r i:"  
re れ レ Revel "4 e" "r e"  
re   Reel "4' i" "r i:"  
ri り リ Rivet "4' i" "r i:"  
ri   Rice "4 a i" or "4 a j" "r aI"  
rl ɭ   "4 4'" or "4 4" "r l" or "r l0" A Retroflex Lateral-Approximant according to the IPA. Tricks are a must for Japanese Vocaloids for proper vocalization.
ro   Rock "4 a" "r Q"  
ro   Roll "4 o" "r @U"  
ro ろ ロ Roam "4 o" "r Q" or "r @U" Depending on desired accent, English Vocaloids may use different methods.
ru る ル Rule "4 M" "r u:"  
ru   Rub "4 a" "r V"  
rw ɥ   "4 h w w" "r h w w" An IPA Labial-Palatal-Approximant. The presence of short r's are overpowered by the short h and longer ws.
rya     "4' a" "r j V"  
rye     "4' e" "r j e"  
rye   Rye (ingredient) "4 a i" or "4 a j" "r aI"  
ryo     "4' o" "r j Q" or "r I Q" English Vocaloids may have trouble speaking "ryo" in correct Japanese style.
ryu   Ryu (dragon) "4' M" "r j u:" or "r I u:" English Vocaloids may have trouble speaking "ryu" in correct Japanese style.
s   S (letter pronunciation) "e s" "e s"  
s   S (consonant, trailing) or Sub s s An Alveolar-Fricative, according to the IPA. May require repetition for Japanese Vocaloids to trail where allowable. In some cases, tricks may be needed if the desired effect is not achieved.
sa さ サ Salmon "s a" "s {"  
sa   Saber "s e i" or "s e j" "s eI"  
se せ セ Seven "s e" "s e"  
se   Seed "s i" "s i:"  
si ɕ Silver "s i" "s I" si and shi can sometimes be interchanged in use. si is used in Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki. shi is the common Hepburn type of Romanization.
si   Siphon "s a i" or "s a j" "s aI"  
so   Sorrow "s a" or "s o" "s Q@" Depending on desired accent, Japanese Vocaloids have two ways of achieving this pronunciation.
so そ ソ Solve "s o" "s Q"  
su す ス Sulfur "s M" "s V" or "s U"  
su   Such "s a" "s V"  
sy   Syllable "s i" "s I"  
sh ʃ ʂ ɕ Shawl S S With decreased brightness, it is a Post Alveolar-Fricative according to the IPA. When brightness and breathiness is further reduced, as well as its vocalization lengthened, it can become an IPA Voiceless Retroflex-Fricative. On the other hand, default settings but slightly-increased breathiness makes it also an IPA Voiceless Alveolar-Palatal-Fricative.
sha   Shampoo "S a" "S {"  
she   She (female pronoun) "S i" "S i:"  
she   Shell "S e" "S e"  
shi ɕ し シ Shiver "S i" "S I" For Japanese vocalization, this is the correct Hepburn Romanization for Shi, though Si can also be used especially in loanwords.
shi   Shine (illumination) "S a i" or "S a j" "S aI"  
shl ɬ   "S 4" "S l" An IPA Alveolar-Lateral Fricative. Neither Vocaloids can trail the S part properly, so tricks will be needed to get the pronunciation right.
sho   Shoddy "S o" or "S a" "S Q"  
sho   Shone "S o" "S Q"  
shu   Shumai (dumpling) "S M" "S u:"  
shu   Shun "S a" "S V"  
sya   Sya (Tagalog variant of "Siya") "s j a" or "s i a" "s j V" sya is Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki variant of sha.
syo   Syobon (Miserable) "s j o" "s j Q"  
syu     "s j M" "s j u:" or "s j U"  
t   T (letter pronunciation) "t' i" or "t C i" "th i:" or "t i:"  
t ʈ T (consonant) t or t' t or th An Alveolar-Plosive, according to the IPA. When manipulated with lower volume, brightness and/or breathiness, it can sound like an IPA Retroflex-Plosive. A vowel may need to be added for Japanese Vocaloids to achieve proper pronunciation in some cases. For smooth "t"s for Japanese Vocaloids, add h or C.
ta た タ Tandem "t a" or "t h a" "th {" or "t {"  
ta   Taste "t e" or "t h e" "th eI" or "t eI"  
ta   Talk "t o" or "t h o" "th O:" or "t O:"  
te て テ Test "t e" or "t h e" "th e" or "t e"  
te   Tee "t' i" or "t C i" "th i:" or "t i:"  
th ð The "d h" or d or dz or d' or "d p\" D A Dental-Fricative according to the IPA. Japanese Vocaloids have many ways to achieve the pronunciation, and it depends on the desired accent.
th θ Thin "t p\" T A Dental-Fricative, according to the IPA. English Vocaloids has a hard "T". Japanese Vocaloids can get this with regular "t" by volume increase or using tricks.
ti   Timid "t' i" or "t C i" "th I" or "t I" TI and CHI may be interchanged in Japanese; TI is used in place of CHI on Hepburn-based Romanization of Kana.
ti   Tiny "t a i" or "t a j" or "t h a i" or "t h a j" "th aI" or "t aI" Depending on Japanese Vocaloids, pick which gives the best effect in pronunciation.
to   Toes "t o M" or "t o w" "th @U" or "t @U"  
to   Tonight "t M" "th V" or "t V" or "th U" or "t U"  
to と ト Toss "t o" "th O:" or "t O:"  
tu   Tundra "t a" or "t h a" "th V" or "t V"  
tu   Tune "t M" "th u:" or "t u:"  
tu   Tusok (Tagalog for "pierce") "t M" "th U" or "t U" As the "u" component for Japanese Vocaloids is unnatural for some dialects, some tricks may be needed to get the right accent.
tsa     "ts a" "th s V" or "t s V"  
tse     "ts e" "th s e" or "t s e"  
tsi     "ts i" "th s I" or "t s I" or "th s i:" or "t s i:"  
tso   Tsokolate (old Spanish for "chocolate") "ts o" "th s Q" or "t s Q"  
tsu つ ツ Tsuma (boring) "ts M" "th s u:" or "t s u:" Tsu is the correct Romanization for Japanese vocalization. Tu can be used for loanwords.
ty c   "t'" "th j" or "t j" An IPA Palatal-Plosive. May also be "cha", depending on target accent for any Vocaloids.
tya     "t' a" "th j V" or "t j V"  
tyo     "t' o" "th j Q" or "t j Q"  
tyu     "t' M" "th j u:" or "t j u:"  
v   V (letter pronunciation) "p\ b' i" "v i:" V is somewhat disregarded in modern Japanese, though it has Katakana equivalents. Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
v β V (consonant) or Valve "p\ b" or "p\  b'" v Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids. A vowel like U (M) may be needed to be added for Japanese Vocaloids, together with some tricks, to achieve desired pronunciation. Unmodified, it is a Labiodental-Fricative that trails, however, with shorter velocity and faster vocalization, it becomes a Bilabial-Fricative, as per IPA.
v V (untrailed shwa) "p\  b" v A Labiodental-Flap according to the IPA. Shorten the velocity to zero to get a somewhat-close effect. Applies to all Vocaloids.
va Vandal "p\ b a" "v {" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
va   Vain "p\ b e i" or "p\ b e j" "v eI" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
ve Vest "p\ b e" "v e" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
ve   Vehicle "p\ b' i  h" "v i:" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vi   Violent "p\ b a i" or "p\ b a j" "v aI" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vi Visitor "p\ b' i" "v I" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vo Volition "p\ b h o" "v O:" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vo   Volume "p\ b h a" or "b h o" "v Q" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vo   Vogue "p\ b a M" "v @U" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vo   Voodoo "p\ b p\ M" "v u:" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vu ゔ ヴ Vuelta (tour) "p\ b M" "v u:" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vu   Vulcan "b p\ a" or "p\ b a" "v V" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
vu   Vue "p\ b' M" "v j u:" Prolonged vocalization with breathiness can turn B into V for Japanese Vocaloids.
w   W (letter pronunciation) "d a b a 4' M" "dh V b V l j u:"  
w ʋ W (consonant) or Wick w or M w As a semivowel or semiconsonant, depending on accent intended, w also sounds like u or even v. It sounds mainly like a Labiodental-Approximant as it sounds like a Voiced Labiovelar-Approximant as per IPA. It may be an alternative for Japanese Vocaloids for alternative u vocalization.
wa わ ワ Wallow "w a" "w Q"  
wa   Water "w a" "w O:"  
wa   Wait "w e i" or "w e j" "w eI"  
we ゑ ヱ Web "w e" "w e"  
we   We (together) "w i" "w i:"  
wi ゐ ヰ Win "w i" "w I" WI is deprecated in modern Japanese.
wi   Wine "w a i" or "w a j" "w aI"  
wo   Woven "w o M" or "w o w" "w @U"  
wo を ヲ Wok "w o" "w Q"  
wo   Won "w a" "w V"  
wo   Wolf "w M" "w U"  
wu   Wushu (martial art) "w M" "w u:"  
wh hw Which "w i" or "h w i" "w I" or "h w I"  
x   X (letter pronunciation) "e k s" or "e k s M" "e k s" Japanese Vocaloids cannot trail the consonant S in this setting, and may require some techniques.
x   X (consonant) k or k' or dz k or kh or z  
xa   Xavier "dz e i" or "dz e j" "z eI"  
xa   Xandolf "dz a" "z V"  
xe   Xerxes "dz e" "z @r"  
xe   Xenon "dz i" "z i:"  
xe     "dz e" "z e"  
xi     "dz i" "z I"  
xo     "dz o" "z Q"  
xu     "dz M" "z U" or "z u:"  
y Y (letter pronunciation) "w a i" or "w a j" "w aI"  
y j ʎ Y (semivowel or semiconsonant) or Yacht j or J or i j A Palatal-Approximant, according to the IPA. Slightly lengthened in pronunciation or added with i somewhere, it becomes an IPA Palatal-Lateral Approximant.
ya や ヤ Yam "j a" "j {"  
ya   Yale "j e i" or "j e j" "j eI"  
ya   Yawn "j o" "j O:"  
ye   Yes "j e" or "i e" "j e"  
yi   Ying "i i" "j I" "yi" does not exist in Japanese phonetics, however, "i" can sometimes recreate this vocalization.
yo   York "j o" "j O@"  
yo よ ヨ Yon (four) "j o" "j Q"  
yo   Young "j a" or "i a" "j V"  
yo   You "j M" "j u:"  
yu   Yum "j a" or "i a" "j V"  
yu ü ゅ ユ Yuan "j M" "j u:"  
z   Z (letter pronunciation) "dz i" "z i:"  
z   Z (consonant) or Zany dz or z z An Alveolar-Fricative, according to the IPA. For Japanese Vocaloids, z syntax ONLY works with Luka and Miku. Everybody else uses dz. Luka also uses dz in her Japanese voicebank though. Miku also has some z M, z e, and z o.
za ざ ザ Zap "dz a" "z {"  
ze ぜ ゼ Zero (Japanese / Asian pronunciation) "dz e" "z e"  
ze   Zero (Western pronunciation) "dz i" "z I"  
ze   Zenith "dz i" "z i:"  
zh ʐ   Z or "Z h" or "dz h" Z or "Z h" or "z h" An IPA Retroflex-Fricative.
zhl ɮ   "dZ 4 a" "dZ l {" An IPA Alveolar-Lateral Fricative. Neither Vocaloids can pronounce the trailing dZ properly, so tricks are definitely needed.
zhy ʝ   "dZ h j" "dZ h j" An IPA Palatal-Fricative, improvised in Vocaloid. May also sound similar to zy or jy.
zi   Zip "dz i" "z I"  
zo ぞ ゾ Zombie "dz o" "z Q"  
zo   Zone "dz o M" "z @U"  
zu ず ズづ ヅ Zune "dz M" "z u:" or "z U" For Japanese vocalization, zu is sometimes substituted with du in case of loanwords.
zy ʒ   Z or "dz j" Z or "z j" An IPA Post Alveolar-Fricative.
zy   Zygote "dz a i" or "dz a j" "z aI"  
zya     "Z a" or "dz j a" "Z a" or "z j V" Oddly enough, of all Japanese Vocaloids, only Gumi doesn't have Z phoneme.
zye     "Z e" or "dz j e" "Z e" or "z j e" Oddly enough, of all Japanese Vocaloids, only Gumi doesn't have Z phoneme.
zyi     "Z i" or "dz i i" "Z I" or "z j I" Oddly enough, of all Japanese Vocaloids, only Gumi doesn't have Z phoneme.
zyo     "Z o" or "dz j o" "Z Q" or "z j Q" Oddly enough, of all Japanese Vocaloids, only Gumi doesn't have Z phoneme.
zyu     "Z M" "dz j M" "Z U" or "z j U" Oddly enough, of all Japanese Vocaloids, only Gumi doesn't have Z phoneme.


English Vocaloids also contain intermediate phonemes, which comprises of vowel combinations. These can be emulated for Japanese Vocaloids, but may require further adjustment.

This list is still being completed, and is intended to be an exhaustive list of phonemes.

COPYRIGHT 2009 MNC Technologies and Orochi Herman.
VOCALOID and VOCALOID2 is a product of Yamaha Corporation.
Original contents may not be used in commercial public media unless explicitly permitted or otherwise specified.
All other copyrighted elements not mentioned are the properties of their respective owners.